Serving in Basra and surrounding areas, Al-Manar Fertility and Endoscopy Center provide a range of infertility services, including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and all items listed below:

Ovulation Induction Using Fertility Drugs

Many women who have difficulty becoming pregnant can conceive with medical assistance. One form of treatment is ovulation induction, which is usually the first step in infertility treatment. In this treatment, medications are given to induce ovulation in women who have irregular periods. The medications can also be given to stimulate the production of multiple eggs in women who ovulate monthly, thus enhancing their ability to conceive.
The medications come in two forms: oral and injectable.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process in which sperm are obtained from ejaculate, washed and placed into a woman's uterus. Often, IUI is performed in conjunction with ovulation induction. Number of eggs available for fertilization is increased by stimulating the ovaries. IUI is performed for men with normal and low sperm counts. This will enhance the ability of sperm to fertilize the egg.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI), a form of artificial insemination, is a relatively simple procedure that enables conception by directing sperm to the right place at the right time. In this process, a thin tube called a catheter is placed directly into the cervix and a carefully prepared sperm sample is injected directly through the catheter into the uterus.

IUI increases a woman's chances of becoming pregnant by injecting an optimal sperm sample directly into the uterus at a time when the woman is most fertile. Studies have shown that pregnancy is more likely to occur if the timing of exposure to sperm is controlled in this way and if sperm is placed in higher numbers closer to the egg or eggs.

In order to determine the best treatment plan, a physician may recommend some or all of the following tests before moving forward with artificial insemination:

When is IUI recommended?

IUI is often recommended for women or couples who:

  • Have ovulation problems and are undergoing ovulation induction, especially when timed intercourse has not succeeded.
  • Are unable to have appropriately timed intercourse due to travel problems or in cases of sexual dysfunction.
  • Have mild male factor infertility.
  • Have unexplained infertility.
  • Have been unsuccessful with infertility medication alone or with other treatments.

Preparing for an IUI procedure

IUI with Fertility Medication

What to expect from the IUI procedure?

Does IUI pose any risks?

How many artificial insemination cycles might be recommended?

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF & ICSI)

Beginning an IVF cycle is an exciting and anxious time for a couple. Our Center provides couples with the maximum amount of clinical, emotional and administrative support they will need to complete their cycle successfully whether it results in a pregnancy or not.

The following explanation is meant to simplify what occurs during various stages of IVF:

Ovarian Follicle Development through Controlled Ovarian Stimulation

Al-Manar Fertility and Endoscopy Center uses fertility drugs that simulate the female partner, natural hormones to develop several normal follicles in the ovaries. These medications are Clomiphene Citrate also called Siphene® or Ovofar® Menogon (hMG), a 50:50 mixture of FSH and LH hormonal administered intramuscularly Puregon® (PoFSH) administered subcutaneously or Gonal-F (RecFSH). Any excess oocytes that fertilize and develop into embryos at fertilization may later be stored through cryopreservation.

Follicular growth, development and maturity are evaluated through frequent hormone monitoring and by ultrasounds. Typically, the hormones estradiol, luteinizing hormone and progesterone are measured through blood tests to evaluate ovarian response. Ultrasound is used several times during a cycle to measure accurately follicular growth and size.

These steps allow the physician team to modify the treatment in some cases and to stop the cycle if the response to stimulation is not satisfactory. Once follicular maturation is achieved, the patient receives an intramuscular injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which triggers oocyte maturation and ovulation. Oocyte retrieval is performed approximately 34 hours later.

Oocyte Retrieval through Puncture/Aspiration

Oocyte Culture, Insemination and Fertilization

Embryo Transfer


Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Indications for Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection


Hystero-Salpingography (HSG) is a radiologic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian tubes. It entails the injection of a radio-opaque material into the cervical canal and usually fluoroscopy with image intensification. A normal result shows the filling of the uterine cavity and the bilateral filling of the fallopian tube with the injection material. To demonstrate tubal rupture, spillage of the material into the peritoneal cavity needs to be observed. A synonym to hystero-Salpingography
is uterosalpingography.

The procedure involves x-rays. It should be done in the follicular phase of the cycle. It is contraindicated in pregnancy. It is useful to diagnose uterine malformations, Asherman's syndrome, tubal occlusion and used extensively in the work-up of infertile women. It has been claimed that pregnancy rates are increased in a cycle when an HSG has been performed. [citation needed] Using catheters, an interventional radiologist can open tubes that are
proximally occluded.

The test is usually done with radiographic contrast medium (dye) injected into the uterine cavity through the vagina and cervix. If the fallopian tubes are open the contrast medium will fill the tubes and spill out into the abdominal cavity. It can be determined whether the fallopian tubes are open or blocked and whether the blockage is located at the junction of the tube and the uterus (proximal) or whether it is at the end of the fallopian tube (distal).

The HSG can be painful, so analgesics may be administered before and/or after the procedure to reduce pain. Many doctors will also prescribe an antibiotic prior to the procedure to reduce the risk of an infection.

Minimally Invasive Ultrasound Procedures

Egg Pickup for IVF

Ovarian Cyst Aspiration

Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

Ultrasound-Guided Tubal Embryo and Gamete Transfer for IVF and GIFT techniques

Pre-implantation Genetics Diagnosis

Pre-implantation genetics diagnosis (PGD) is a technique aimed at eliminating embryos which have abnormal chromosomes or carrying serious genetic disease before pregnancy is established. One of the most important application areas of the PGD technique is to identify embryos that can have defects in their chromosomes despite the absence of diseases. These structural or numerical defects in the embryo can be seen more often in older pregnant women, especially those over 35. This situation may result in infertility because it reduces the chance of implantation and also causes unwanted miscarriages. As a matter of fact, 40 out of 100 pregnancies in women aged 39 and over will result in problems related to structural or numerical chromosomal defects.

In addition to older women, PGD is used in female patients who have experienced repeated miscarriages or cannot conceive despite having tried IVF twice or more. In spite of all its benefits, cases in which this technique will be used must be selected carefully. It should be remembered that a PGD procedure requires a cell to be extracted from the embryo via a biopsy. So there is chance of harming the embryo and this procedure has a 10 percent margin of error. Therefore, it is thought to do more harm than good when performed needlessly.

Why should someone undergo this procedure?

  • The risk of miscarriage during a normal pregnancy drops from 23 to 9 percent.
  • The probability of the embryo attaching to the womb nearly doubles.
  • The chances of a clinical pregnancy and going home with a baby increase.
  • The rate of multiple pregnancy decreases.

How is a PGD procedure performed?

Causes of infertility in Female

A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner. It is recommended that a consultation with a fertility specialist should be made earlier if the woman is aged 36 years or over, or there is a known clinical cause of infertility or a history of predisposing factors for infertility.


Damage to fallopian tubes

Damage to the fallopian tubes (which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) can prevent contact between the egg and sperm. Pelvic infections, endometriosis and pelvic surgeries may lead to scar formation and fallopian tube damage.

Hormonal causes

Cervical causes

Uterine causes

Unexplained infertility

Minor Male Infertility & Endoscopy Procedure


Just like varicose veins in the legs, the scrotum is also subject to dilated veins. What happens is that the veins become dilated when blood doesn't drain properly from them. This extra blood pools in the scrotum and it negatively impacts sperm production. The positive news is that this is the most common reversible cause of male infertility and may be corrected by minor
outpatient surgery.

Most doctors perform this surgery microscopically to preserve the arterial supply and lymphatic. An incision is made about one inch above the penis (it's called a subinguinal incision) avoiding the abdominal muscles, which means less post-operative pain.

Seminal Fluid Abnormalities

This occurs when the semen is very thick, making it difficult for the sperm to move into the woman's reproductive tract. An attempt is made to separate the moving sperm from the dead sperm and surrounding debris, process it and place it directly into the uterus with a small tube. This is called intrauterine insemination (IUI).

Ductal System Problems

Some of these are sperm carrying ducts that may be missing or blocked. An absence of both sides of the vas deferens since birth obstructions at the point where the delicate tubular structure drains the testes or higher up in the more muscular vas deferens or blockage that occurred during hernia or hydrocele repairs or from scar tissue from due to an infection.

The mechanics of the situation are that sperm must travel through the ejaculatory ducts as they go from seminal vesicles to the urethra. If these ducts are blocked, the sperm can't get through.

Options here include repairing or unblocking the ducts, or if that's not possible, the sperm can be harvested so they can go through the man's reproductive tract. In cases like this, sperm is obtained in low numbers, so this procedure must be used in conjunction with advanced reproductive techniques to
attempt a pregnancy.

Sperm Freezing

In the past several decades the technology of cryopreservation, or maintaining life in a frozen state, has advanced considerably. With the use of modern techniques, cryopreservation of sperm to preserve an individual's ability to reproduce has become successful, safe, and widely available.

Who needs to freeze semen?

Some common reasons why you may choose to store a semen sample include:

  • Prior to Artificial Insemination: One common cause of male infertility is a low concentration of sperm in the ejaculate. For some, the collection of one or more samples to be cryopreserved and later combined with a fresh sample and used for artificial insemination may be helpful in achieving a pregnancy.
  • Prior to the absence of the partner: For couples going through cycles of artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF), it can be frustrating when responsibilities or obligations require a spouse to be absent. If it is anticipated that the male partner will be unavailable during the optimal time for the procedure, it is possible to cryopreserve a semen sample prior to his departure as a backup in the event he is prevented from providing a sample at the time of the procedure. While this may not be optimal, it can often keep the time and finances invested in a procedure from being wasted due to
    unforeseen circumstances.
  • Vasectomy: The majority of men who choose a vasectomy as a form of birth control see it as a permanent decision. However, unexpected changes in a patient's life such as a new marriage or death of a child or spouse can give rise to the desire to have more children. Vasectomies can be surgically reversed but success is widely variable and the surgery is expensive and invasive. Additionally, after an initially successful reversal, the ducts through which the sperm travel often develop scar tissue and become obstructed. As most individuals plan for a vasectomy well in advance, cryopreservation prior to having a vasectomy provides an effective form of insurance against a change in future plans.
  • Treatment for malignant disease: Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, testicular cancer and other malignancies often occur in juveniles, young adults and others who haven't started or completed their families. Fortunately, early detection and improved therapies have dramatically increased the survival rate for these diseases. Unfortunately, the chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy used to treat these diseases affect the production of sperm.
  • The response to treatment varies considerably, depending on how far the disease has progressed prior to treatment, the type and quantity of agents used and the specific individual's reaction to the treatment. While many patients who have undergone chemotherapy will eventually have a return of sperm production to varying degrees, some therapies, such as treatment with platinum based agents, result in a high probability of sterility. Even though the time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment is short, there is often a window of several days in which a patient can cryopreserve his semen.

How is the semen cryopreserved?

After a semen sample has been collected, it is placed on a warming block maintained at 37°C, until the sample, which is highly viscous directly after collection, has become liquefied. At this time the semen sample is washed as in IUI and is mixed with a freezing medium that allows the semen sample to survive the freezing and storage process. The freezing medium used contains cyroprotectants. Cryoprotectants are salts or chemicals that help remove water from the cells being frozen. If the water is not removed from the sperm, ice crystals will form inside of the cell and break up it up, resulting in cell death.

Semen samples are slowly frozen in liquid nitrogen vapors. Once the semen samples have been frozen in the liquid nitrogen vapors they are placed on canes or in special containers where they are stored in the liquid nitrogen until they are needed. Liquid nitrogen has a temperature of -196°C, compared with a temperature of -20°C found in the average home freezer. The very low temperature essentially halts all metabolic activity in the cell, allowing them to be frozen and stored for very long periods.

When a sample is thawed, it is removed from the liquid nitrogen and placed in water until it has reached a liquid state. Once liquid, it is placed on a 37°C block and allowed to warm to that temperature prior to being prepared for use. By thawing the sample in stages, the sperm are protected from thawing too quickly, which results in the sperm heads swelling and rupturing as water moves back into the cells.

Use of Cryopreserved Sperm to achieve pregnancy

Cryopreserved sperm are generally used in two different ways to achieve pregnancy. The first way is with artificial insemination. When artificial insemination is used the female partner, working with a fertility specialist, determines when she will be ovulating. At the appropriate time, an appointment is scheduled with the Andrology laboratory and one of the cryopreserved samples is prepared by carefully thawing and washing the semen sample. The washing procedure removes the cryoprotectants and seminal fluid, and concentrates the sperm into a volume appropriate for insemination. Depending on the quality of the sample, the doctor may have more than one vial prepared at each attempt. Once the sample is prepared, the patients will take it to their care provider to have the insemination performed. The physician performing the procedure uses a small catheter that is inserted into the uterus and deposits the sperm.

If there is known female factor infertility, or sperm are not available in sufficient quantity or quality, In vitro fertilization (IVF) can be another option. With this technique the female partner, working with a reproductive endocrinologist receives hormone injections that stimulate her ovaries to produce several follicles containing mature eggs. When the follicles have matured sufficiently, the eggs are retrieved and the cryopreserved sperm is prepared and used to fertilize the eggs. Advantages to this procedure include a much higher pregnancy rate and the ability to use semen samples with a very low concentration or poor motility.

FAQs about Sperm Freezing:

How long can sperm be stored?

There is no practical limit to the length of time sperm, correctly maintained in liquid nitrogen, can be stored.

Is freezing harmful to the sperm?

A percentage of the sperm will not survive the freezing process. The survival rate varies greatly between individuals. There may be some loss of fertilization potential in the sperm that do survive. Freezing itself does not cause DNA damage to the sperm. Again, the effects of cryopreservation are variable between samples and patients.

How is the semen specimen collected?

A single ejaculate is collected into a sterile container by masturbation. A private room is available specifically for the purpose of semen collection.

How many samples should be frozen?

A minimum of two samples is recommended for storage prior to surgery and/or therapy, however it's the patient's choice as to how many samples he will freeze. The patient should discuss his future plans during the initial consult and establish a plan based on time constraints and future need. The number of samples needed for adequate storage is different for each situation and varies with the quality of the sample once it is thawed.

What if the initial semen quality is poor, or the concentration is very low?

Many cryopreserved samples may not be of sufficient quality for use with artificial insemination. However, advanced procedures used in association with ICSI are regularly performed with sample of very poor quality or concentration. Any sample containing sperm, regardless of concentration or quality, is routinely frozen. If there is a concern at the time of processing the sample for cryopreservation the laboratory director or your care provider will be contacted.

How long should the abstinence period be between collections?

Optimal abstinence time is from two to five days.

How can I be sure my semen sample is not contaminated with another sample or mislabeled?

The specimen container used to collect the sample is labeled and verified by the patient prior to collection. Once the sample is received it is handled with extreme caution. All materials used in the process are labeled with the patient's name, the current date and a visit number unique to the patient and the sample collected. Each sample is assigned a physically isolated workstation. All tools and solutions used in preparing the sample for cryopreservation are sterile and single use. This and the use of trained, certified Andrology technicians will ensure there is no confusion in the handling of semen samples.

Embryo Freezing

Freezing extra embryos increases the opportunity to achieve a pregnancy as a result of a single egg retrieval procedure. If a pregnancy does not occur in "fresh" IVF cycle, the patient can return at a later time for transfer of the remaining embryos. An ultrasound assessment of the uterine lining is performed before the embryos are thawed, to make sure an adequate uterine environment is present. Usually about 75% of the frozen embryos survive the thawing process, but it can vary depending on the stage at which the embryos are frozen.

After the transfer after completing the transfer you will be repositioned very gently so your legs are together and slightly elevated. This position is recommended for a short period of time following transfer. It is important during this time that you remain relatively relaxed and comfortable. Usually you will remain at rest for 15 to 30 minutes after the transfer.

The lining of the uterus is uniquely designed to enhance the process of embryo implantation. Special secretions of nutrients and cell adhesion molecules assist the embryo in the process of continuing development, attaching to the uterine wall and burrowing the placental cells into the uterus. The embryos are now safely housed within the walls of the uterus. For better or worse, there is very little you can do at this point to affect the chances of successful implantation. Whether or not the embryo or embryos implant in the uterus is primarily dependent on the health of the embryo.

When you go home, be a couch potato for 6 - 8 hours after the transfer. Have a good book ready to read and move between bed, the bathroom and the couch. If you have small children you avoid lifting them. After 8 hours, you may increase your activity but don't do vigorous aerobics or running.

Your ovaries will still be full of fluid from the effects of the stimulation and you may feel some bloating or pelvic discomfort at this time. It is okay to take the stairs slowly and walk short distances, less than a half mile. Avoid any vaginal creams, lubricants, or spermicides. Take showers instead of tub baths and don't go swimming. Avoid vaginal intercourse or orgasm for about a week after your transfer. If you have to travel, give yourself twice as much time as usual and minimize stress.


Testicular Sperm Aspiration Or Extraction

TESE (testicular sperm extraction) Sperm is produced in the testicles and carried to the penis through the tubes which are known as the epididymis and
the vas deferens.

When it is not possible for the sperm to travel beyond the testicles to reach the penis for ejaculation, then sperm can be retrieved by two different methods: TESE (testicular sperm extraction) and PESA (percutaneous epididymal
sperm aspiration).

PESA(percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) PESA is a minimally invasive technique which is used to extract sperm from the epididymis under local anaesthesia with a fine needle. If sperm cannot be retrieved using this method then the patient may have to proceed to TESE which is also a minimally invasive procedure performed under local or general anaesthesia and is used to extract sperm from the testicles.

Lack of sperm in the ejaculate can occur as a result of various circumstances, for example, when a man is born without a vas deferens, if the ducts are blocked by scarring from a previous infection, or if the man has undergone vasectomy in the past and reversal has failed.

Sperm obtained from either the testicles or the epididymis will usually have poor motility. Therefore, in order to improve the chances of fertilisation the sperm are usually microinjected into each egg by ICSI.

Hysteroscopy Dignostic & Operative

The inside of a woman's uterus has a special lining called the endometrium. That lining is unique because it responds to the hormones produced monthly. There are a number of conditions that disrupt the endometrium and can lead to heavy or irregular periods or infertility.

Operative hysteroscopy refers to a minimally invasive technique whereby such conditions can be treated on an outpatient (day surgery) basis. Conditions treated hysteroscopically include endometrial polyps or fibroids that can be removed to enhance fertility. Hysteroscopy is used for conditions below:


A couple may not be able to achieve pregnancy for a number of reasons. Sometimes the cause of female infertility is related to the defect in the shape or size of the uterus. One example of this is a seperate uterus (a thin sheet of tissue divides the inside of the uterus into two sections). Hysteroscopy may find and help treat these problems.

Abnormal Growths

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Repeated Miscarriages


Displaced IUDs

Hysteroscopic Procedure

Laparoscopy Dignostic & Operative

A woman's reproductive organs lie in her pelvis. There are a number of conditions that can affect the fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus and that can be treated surgically. Operative laparoscopy refers to a minimally invasive technique done on an outpatient basis. This procedure is helpful in treating many debilitating or infertility-causing conditions, including endometriosis, uterine fibroids, damage from infection, tubal disease and pelvic
adhesive disease.

Some women are evaluated with a laparoscopy, while more complex laparoscopy can restore a woman's pelvic anatomy to enhance fertility. Conditions such as endometriosis are usually diagnosed and treated laparoscopically.

A laparoscope is a small telescope that is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision(cut). It brings light into the abdomen so the doctor can see inside. Laproscopy is usually done on an outpatient basis you don't have to stay in the hospital overnight.


Tissue like endometrium (the lining of the uterus) some times grows in places outside of the uterus. The tissue bleeds every month, as with a menstrual cycle. This condition is called endometriosis. It can cause pain, scar tissue and infertility. One way to be certain that endometriosis is present is by laproscopy.



Ovarian Cyst


Ectopic Pregnancy

Advantages of laparoscopy


Possible problems

Minor Gyneacolocal Procedures in Female
  • Colposcopy - Colposcopy is a diagnostic tool used for further evaluation of abnormal Pap smears. This procedure provides a non-surgical way for your physician to visualize your cervix.
    One of the most frightening times in a woman's life is when the gynecologist calls and says that her Pap smear results are abnormal. Although you might think an abnormal Pap smear means that you have cervical cancer, the fact is that the majority of abnormal Pap smears are not caused by cervical cancer. The more likely cause of abnormal Pap smear results is inflammation or a
    vaginal infection.
    Because the Pap smear can only screen for potential problems, not diagnose them, your gynecologist may want to take a closer look at your cervix to determine the cause of your abnormal Pap smear results. He will perform an examination called a colposcopy. Your doctor may order this procedure if you have Pap smear results that:
    indicate cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer.
    show evidence of HPV.
    show first-time or repeat a typical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASCUS).
    Your gynecologist may also order a colposcopy if your cervix appears abnormal during your pelvic exam and Pap smear, or if you have a history of prenatal
    DES exposure.
    Colposcopy is a simple, 10 to 15 minute procedure that is painless and performed in a gynecologist' s office. You are positioned on the examination table like you are for a Pap smear and an acetic acid (such as common table vinegar) is placed on the cervix.
    Your physician will use a colposcope a large, electric microscope that is positioned approximately 30 cm from the vagina to view your cervix. A bright light at the end of the colposcope lets the gynecologist clearly see the cervix.
  • Cyrosurgery - Cervical cryosurgery or cryotherapy is a gynecological treatment that freezes a section of the cervix. Cryosurgery destroys abnormal cervical cells that show changes that may lead to cancer. These changes are called precancerous cells. Your gynecologist may use the term cervical dysplasia to describe your condition.
    Cryosurgery of the cervix is most often done to destroy abnormal cervical cells that show changes that may lead to cancer. These changes are called precancerous cells. Your gynecologist will probably use the term cervical dysplasia. Cryosurgery is done only after a colposcopy confirms the presence of abnormal cervical cells.
    Cyrotherapy is also used for the treatment of cervicitis or inflammation of the cervix. Cryosurgery is not a treatment for cervical cancer.
    What happens during cryosurgery?
    Cryosurgery is performed in your doctor's office while you are awake. It is similar to a pelvic exam:
    • you will be asked to undress from the waist down.
    • lie on an exam table with your feet in stirrups.
    • A speculum is inserted into your vagina to hold the vaginal canal open so that your cervix can be seen.
    However, that's where the similarity ends.
    • Cryotherapy uses special instruments called cryo probes.
    • During cryosurgery the cyro probes are inserted into your vagina until they firmly cover the abnormal areas of cervical tissue.
    • Next, liquid nitrogen begins to flow through the cryo probes at a temperature of approximately -50 degrees Celsius.
    • This causes the metal cryo probes to freeze and destroy superficial abnormal cervical tissue.
    • The most effective treatment result is obtained by freezing for three minutes, letting the cervix thaw and repeating the treatment for three more minutes.
  • LEEP Procedure - The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is used when there is an indication of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix If your doctor has told you that you need to have a LEEP procedure, it's because your annual Pap smear indicated the presence of abnormal cervical cells, or cervical dysplasia. While the loop electrosurgical excision procedure, or LEEP procedure, may make you wonder if your doctor wants you to jump. The LEEP procedure has nothing to do with jumping. The LEEP procedure is one of several procedures your doctor has available to help diagnose and treat abnormal cervical cells. Other procedures your doctor may want you to have either before or during the LEEP procedure include, a colposcopy and / or a cone biopsy.
    LEEP uses a thin wire loop electrode which is attached to an electrosurgical generator. The generator transmits a painless electrical current that quickly cuts away the affected cervical tissue in the immediate area of the loop wire. This causes the abnormal cells to rapidly heat and burst and separates the tissue as the loop wire moves through the cervix.
    This technique allows your physician to send the excised tissue to the lab for further evaluation which insures that the lesion was completely removed, as well as allowing for a more accurate assessment of the abnormal area.
    You may want to ask your doctor if it's OK to take an over-the-counter pain reliever such as ibuprofen before your procedure to help minimize any pain. Never take any drug before any medical procedure without explicitly asking your doctor about it. Always follow your doctor's instructions for preparation for the LEEP.
    What happens during the LEEP procedure?
    The LEEP procedure takes about 20-30 minutes and is usually performed in your physician's office. In some ways it may seem much like a normal pelvic exam because you will lie on the exam table with your feet in the stirrups. A colposcope will be used to guide your doctor to the abnormal area. Unlike a normal colposcopy, a tube will be attached to the speculum to remove the small amount of smoke caused by the procedure.
    An electrosurgical dispersive pad will be placed on your thigh. The pad is a gel-covered adhesive electrode which provides a safe return path for the electrosurgical current. A single-use, disposable loop electrode will be attached to the generator hand piece by your physician. Your cervix will be prepared with acetic acid and iodine solutions that enable your physician to more easily see the extent of the abnormal area. Next a local anesthetic will be injected into the cervix. The electroloop will be generated and the wire loop will pass through the surface of your cervix.
    After the lesion is removed your physician will use a ball electrode to stop any bleeding that occurs. He may also use a topical solution to prevent further bleeding. You can leave your physician's office soon after the procedure.
  • Hysteroscopy - Hysteroscopy provides a way for your physician to look inside your uterus. A hysteroscope is a thin, telescope like instrument that is inserted into the uterus through the vagina and cervix. This tool often helps a physician diagnose or treat a uterine problem.
  • Pelvic laparoscopy - Laparoscopy is usually performed under general anesthesia however, it can be performed with other types of anesthesia that permit the patient to
    remain awake. The typical pelvic laparoscopy involves a small (1/2" to 3/4") incision in the belly button or lower abdomen.
    Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique used in procedures such as tubal ligation, gallbladder removal or hiatal hernia repair. It is normally performed in the Al-Manar Fertility and Endoscopy Center l. In most cases, patients can return home a few hours after a laproscopic procedure.
    What happens during laparoscopy?
    Laparoscopy is usually performed under general anesthesia; however it can be performed with other types of anesthesia that permit the patient to
    remain awake.
    The typical pelvic laparoscopy involves a small (1/2" to 3/4") incision in the belly button or lower abdomen. The abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide causes the abdomen to swell, which lifts the abdominal wall away from the internal organs. That way, the doctor has more room to work.
    Next, a laparoscope (a one-half inch fiber-optic rod with a light source and video camera) is inserted through the belly button. The video camera permits the surgeon to see inside the abdominal area on video monitors located in the operating room.
    Depending on the reason for the laparoscopy, the physician may perform surgery through the laparoscope by inserting various instruments into the laparoscope while using the video monitor as a guide. The video camera also allows the surgeon to take pictures of any problem areas he discovers.
    In some cases, the physician may discover that he is unable to accomplish the goal of surgery through the laparoscope and a full abdominal incision will be made. However, if this is a possibility in your case, your physician will discuss this with you prior to surgery and the surgical consent form will include
    this possibility.
  • D & C - Often used to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, the D&C is one of the most common GYN operative procedures. Dilation and Curettage also provides important information about whether uterine cancer is present.
    Before you can understand D&C you need to know a little about the uterus and cervix. The uterus is a pear-shaped, muscular organ that sits in the lower abdomen. The top of the uterus is wide and it narrows like the neck of a bottle at the bottom. The lower third portion of the uterus is its neck which is called the cervix. The cervix is round and has a small opening called the OS. During your GYN exam your physician can see the cervix by using a speculum an instrument used to separate the walls of the vagina.
    The inner wall of the uterus is lined by endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissues thicken during the first part of your menstrual cycle. Once ovulation occurs progesterone acts to stop this thickening and changes the endometrial lining so that it is ready to accept a pregnancy should it occur. If pregnancy doesn't occur, hormone production ceases and the endometrium breaks up and is shed as menstrual blood.
    Who Needs A D&C?
    A D&C may be required to diagnose and/or treat a problem such as heavy or prolonged menstruation, as well as unexplained bleeding between periods. The are many possible causes for these menstrual abnormalities, one of the most common being a hormonal imbalance. Hormonal imbalance causes a thickening of the endometrium which sometimes causes irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles. Although this can happen at any age it most commonly occurs in young women just starting menstruation and in older pre-menopausal women.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding is also a warning of various types of growths, which are most often non-cancerous. One of these benign growths are polyps which attach either by a stem or a stalk most often to the lining of the uterus or the cervix. Polyps inside the uterus can usually be removed by D&C. Fibroid tumors are another common benign growth that occurs in the uterus. Fibroids can be silent causing no symptoms, or they can cause heavy bleeding and painful cramping. Although fibroid tumors are sometimes detected during dilation and curettage, another surgical procedure is necessary to
    remove them.
    Abnormal bleeding is sometimes a sign of endometrial cancer, particularly in women over 40. Women over 40, especially those past menopause, may have a D&C or another procedure called an endometrial biopsy. Occasionally a hysteroscopy is performed at the same time as a D&C, allowing the doctor a better view of inside the cervix, vagina and uterus.
    Dialation and curettage are also commonly performed following miscarriage or abortion in cases where the uterus fails to fully empty its content. Abortions induced before the 12th week of pregnancy are performed in a manner which is similar to the D&C.
  • Ovarian Cyst Aspiration - An ovarian cyst is a very common condition in which fluid collects in the ovary. However, cysts that are more than 5 cm in size need to be treated as they can cause problems (e.g. twisting and rupture). Normally, surgery had to be done to remove these cysts and often this damaged the surrounding normal ovary as well. With ultrasound-guidance, we can stick a needle from the vagina into the cyst and empty the contents (usually clear fluid) by sucking it out. This empties the cyst, which often does not recur.
Causes of Male Infertility

Reproduction (or making a baby) is a simple and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it is very difficult to conceive. Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing of both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male partner.


How common is male infertility?

Are there any signs or symptoms of male infertility?

How does the male reproductive system work?

What causes male infertility?